An analysis of the biotechnology development in Cuba for 20 years has been attempted in this paper. This paper deals with the evolution of the biotechnology sector from the 1980s, how it was structured and the most important scientific and technical results. Relevant discoveries, methodologies, technologies, and products developed at the Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology are also presented as significant contributions to the advances of the life sciences. Data and evidences are shown in this document that demonstrates the feasibility of developing a new industry in a developing country under foreign economic pressures. Conclusions suggest new paradigms, and future discussions of the broadest interest on the Cuban approach followed for developing the biotechnology industry.
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