Treatments of industrial effluent/s by enzymes offer significant advantage over the use of microorganisms. However they have not been explored for the bioremediation of effluent from pulp and paper industry. This may be because of the less availability of lignolytic enzymes which can be active/stable under extreme environmental conditions that are present in effluent treatment plant of pulp and paper mills. In present study use of thermoalkali stable laccase from Bacillus tequilensis SN4 has been explored for the bioremediation of paper mill effluent. Under standardized conditions significant reduction in various parameters , color 83%, BOD 82%, COD 77%, phenol content 62%, lignin content 74%, TDS 28% and TSS 34%, was achieved. Major advantage was that treatment time was only 4h, much less than the bioremediation reported with the use of microorganisms, which is usually four to five days. Results indicate that SN4 laccase is very suitable to develop a process for the effective bioremediation of effluent from pulp and paper industry.
Ali, M. and Sreekrishnan, T.R. (2001), ‘Aquatic toxicity from pulp and paper mill effluents: a review’, Adv Environ Res.,Vol. 5, pp.175–196.
Rani, A., Porwal, S., Sharma, R ., Kapley, A., Purohit, H.J. and Kalia, V.C. (2008), ‘Assessment of microbial diversity in effluent treatment plants by culture dependent and culture independent approaches’, Bioresour Technol., Vol.99, pp.7098–7107
Raj, M.M.K., Reddy, R., Chandra, H.J., Purohit. and Kapley, A. (2007), ‘Biodegradation of kraft-lignin by Bacillus sp. isolated from sludge of pulp and paper mill’, Biodegradation., Vol.18(6), pp. 783–792.
Singh, S., Chandra, R., Patel, D.K., Reddy, M.M.K. and Rai, V. (2008), ‘Investigation of the biotransformation of pentachlorophenol and pulp paper mill effluent discoloration by the bacterial strains in a mixed culture’, Bioresour Technol., Vol. 99(13), pp. 5703–5709.
Chandra, R., Raj, A., Yadav, S. and Patel, D.K. (2009), ‘Reduction of pollutants in pulp paper mill effluent treated by PCP-degrading bacterial strains’, Environ Monit Assess.,Vol. 155(1),pp. 1–11.
Chauhan, P.S., Sharma, P., Puri, N. and Gupta, N. (2014), ‘A process for reduction in viscosity of coffee extract by enzymatic hydrolysis of mannan’, Bioprocess Biosyst Eng., Vol.37 (7), pp. 1459-1467
George, N., Chauhan, P.S., Puri, N. and Gupta, N.(2014), ‘Statistical optimization of process parameters for production of alkaline protease from Vibrio metschnikovii NG155 having application in leather industry’, Int J Pharma Bio Sci., Vol. 5 (1), pp.509-517
D’Souza-Ticlo, D., Garg, S. and Raghukumar, C. (2009), ‘Effects and interactions of medium components on laccase from a marine-derived fungus using response surface methodology’, Mar Drugs.,Vol. 7, pp. 672-688
Chauhan, P.S., Soni, S.K., Sharma, P., Saini, A. and Gupta, N. (2014), ‘ A mannanase from Bacillus nealsonii PN-11: Statistical optimization of production and application in biobleaching of pulp in combination with xylanase’, Int. J. Pharma Bio Sci., Vol. 5 (1), pp.237-251.
Chauhan, P.S., Tripathi, S.P., Sangamwar, A.T., Puri, N., Sharma, P. and Gupta, N. (2015), ‘ Cloning, molecular modeling, and docking analysis of alkali-thermostable ?-mannanase from Bacillus nealsonii PN-11’, Appl Microbiol Biotechnol., Vol. 99 (21), pp. 8917-8925.
Woldesenbet, F., Virk, A.P., Gupta, N. and Sharma, P. (2012), ‘Effect of Microwave irradiation on xylanase production from wheat bran and biobleaching of Eucalyptus Kraft Pulp’, Appl Biochem Biotechnol., Vol. 167 (1), pp. 100-8.
Gupta, V., Garg, S., Capalash, N., Gupta, N. and Sharma, P. (2015), ‘Production of thermo-alkali-stable laccase and xylanase by co-culturing of Bacillus sp. and B. halodurans for biobleaching of kraft pulp and deinking of waste paper’, Bioprocess Biosyst Eng., Vol. 38 (5), pp. 947-956
Chauhan, P.S., Bharadwaj, A., Puri, N. and Gupta, N. (2014), ‘Optimization of medium composition for alkali-thermostable mannanase production by Bacillus nealsonii PN-11 in submerged fermentation’, Int J.Curr Microbiol App Sci., Vol. 3(10), pp.1033-1045.
Woldesenbet, F., Gupta, N. and Sharma, P. (2012), ‘Statistical optimization of the production of a cellulase-free, thermo-alkali-stable, salt-and solvent-tolerant xylanase from Bacillus halodurans by solid state fermentation’, Arch Appl Sci Res., Vol. 4, pp.524-535.
Sondhi, S., Sharma, P., George, N., Chauhan, P.S., Puri, N. and Gupta, N. (2015), ‘ An extracellular thermo-alkali-stable laccase from Bacillus tequilensis SN4, with a potential to biobleach softwood pulppp.’, 3 Biotech.,Vol. 5(2), pp. 175-185.
Sondhi, S., Sharma, P., Saini, S., Puri, N. and Gupta, N. (2014), ‘Purification and characterization of an extracellular, thermo-alkali-stable, metal tolerant laccase from Bacillus tequilensis SN4’, PLoS ONE., Vol. 9(5), e96951.
CPPA. (1974), ‘Technical section standard method H5P’, Canadian Pulp and Paper Association Montreal Canada.
APHA., AWWA., WEF. (2005), ‘ Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. 21st edition’, American Public Health Association Washington DC.
Ainsworth, E.A.and Gillespie, K.M.(2007),‘ Estimation of total phenolic content and other oxidation substrates in plant tissues using Folin–Ciocalteu reagent’, Nat Protoc., Vol. 2, pp. 875-877.
Pearl, I.A. and Benson, H.K. (1990), ‘The determination of lignin in sulphide pulping liquor’, Pap Trade J., Vol. 111(18), pp. 35-36.
Trovaslet, M., Enaud, E., Guaivarch, Y., Corbisier, A.M. and Vanhulle, S. (2006), ‘ Potential of a Pycnoporus sanguineus laccase in bioremediation of wastewater and kinetic activation in the presence of an anthraquinonic acid dye’, Enzyme Microb Technol., Vol. 41, pp. 368–376.
Singh, M.P., Vishwakarma, S.K. and Srivastava, A.K. (2013), ‘Bioremediation of Direct Blue 14 and Extracellular Ligninolytic Enzyme Production by White Rot Fungi: Pleurotus Spp’, BioMed Res Int., Vol. 180156,.doi.org/10.1155/2013/180156
Murugesan, K. (2003), ‘Bioremediation of paper mill effluents’, Ind J Exp Biol., Vol. 41(11),pp. 1239-1248.
Thakur, I.S. (2004), ‘Screening and identification of microbial strains for removal of color and adsorbable organic halogens in pulp and paper mill effluent’, Process Biochem., Vol. 39, pp. 1693–1699.
Singh, G., Ahuja, N., Batish. M., Capalash, N. and Sharma, P. (2008), ‘Biobleaching of wheat straw-rich soda pulp with alkalophilic laccase from ?-proteobacterium JB: optimization of process parameters using response surface methodology’, Bioresour Technol., Vol . 99, pp. 7472–7479..
Sun, S., Zhang, Y., Que, Y., Liu, B., Hu, K. and Xu, L. (2013), ‘Purification and characterization of fungal laccase from Mycenia purpureofusca’, Chiang Mai J Sc., Vol. 40(2), pp. 151-160.
Sharma, P., Goel, R. and Capalash, N. (2007), ‘Bacterial laccases’, World J Microbiol Biotechnol., Vol. 3(6), pp.823–832.
Reiss, R., Ihssen, J. and Thony-Meyer, L. (2011), ‘Bacillus pumilus laccase: a heat stable enzyme with a wide substrate spectrum’, BMC Biotechnol., Vol. 11, pp. 9-20.
Chen, B., Xu ,W.Q., Pan, X.R . and Lu, L. (2015), ‘ A novel non-blue laccase from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens: secretory expression and characterization’, Int J Biol Macromol., Vol. 76, pp. 39–44.
Singhal, A and Thakur, I.S. (2009), ‘Decolourization and detoxification of pulp and paper mill effluent by Cryptococcus sp’, Biochem Eng J., Vol. 46, pp. 21–27.
Sharma, A., Thakur, V.V., Shrivastava, A., Jain, R.K., Mathur, R.M., Gupta, R. and Kuhad, R.C. (2014), ‘Xylanase and laccase based enzymatic kraft pulp bleaching reduces adsorbable organic halogen (AOX) in bleaching effluents: A pilot scale study’, Bioresour Technol., Vol. 169, pp. 96-102.
Sastry, C.A. (1986), ‘ Color removal from pulp and paper mill wastes’, Ind J Environ Protect., Vol. 6, pp. 105–113.
Raj, A., Kumara, S., Haqa, I. and Singh, S.K.(2014), ‘Bioremediation and toxicity reduction in pulp and paper mill effluent by newly isolated ligninolytic Paenibacillus sp’, Ecol Eng., Vol. 71, pp. 355–362
Singh, P. and Thakur, I.S. (2006), ‘ Colour removal of anaerobically treated pulp and paper mill effluent by microorganisms in two steps bioreactor’, Bioresour Technol., Vol. 97, pp. 218–223
Tyagi, S., Kumar, V., Singh, J.1., Teotia, P.1., Bisht, S. and Sharma, S. (2014), ‘Bioremediation of Pulp and Paper mill Effluent by Dominant Aboriginal Microbes and Their Consortium’, Int J Environ Res., Vol. 8(3), pp.561-568.
Dicosimo, R., Mcauliffe, J., Poulose, A.J. and Bohlmann, G. (2013), ‘ Industrial use of immobilized enzymes’, Chem Soc Rev., Vol.42(15),DOI: 10.1039/c3cs35506c •
Unless specified by prior arrangement, the author agrees to the following terms and assurances:
- For myself and on behalf of the other authors listed on this work, I assign to thinkBiotech LLC the copyright* in the contribution for the full term throughout the world.
- I/we further give to the following assurances
- I am the sole author of the contribution, or, if not, I have the written authority of the other authors to transfer the copyright* to thinkBiotech LLC and give these warranties;
- I and (where appropriate) the other authors are entitled to transfer the copyright to thinkBiotech LLC and no one else would be entitled to prevent us from publishing the contribution;
- To the best of my/our knowledge, all the facts in the contribution are true and accurate;
- The content of the contribution is entirely original to me (and where appropriate to the other authors) or, if not, the written permission of the owner of the copyright in any material copied from elsewhere has been obtained for all media (all such permissions to be attached to the contribution as supplementary files);
- Nothing in the contribution is obscene or libellous;
- Nothing in the contribution infringes any duty of confidentiality which I/or the other authors may owe to anyone else.
- I and/or the other authors have obtained the appropriate clearances from my/our employer(s) or other concerned institution(s).