Transgenic crop research and regulation in India: Whether legislation rightly drives the motion?
Requires Subscription or Fee PDF

Supplementary Files

Requires Subscription or Fee Table 2


transgenic crop
transgenic research


The promotion of genetic engineering research and GM crops can help to overcome the future deficit of food production in India. Hunger, poverty, malnutrition etc. are significant problems that still need to be addressed. ‘The National Food Security Act, 2013’ is expected to resolve some of these challenges. Agricultural GDP needs to be augmented by an increase in food crop production. Policy and social considerations related to GM crops continue to be a popular debate in the country. The regulation of transgenic plant research is guided by several legislations in the country. Regulatory agency approvals impact commercialization of transgenic crops. As greater capacity continues to develop in transgenic research on plants in Asia one of the prime considerations is whether Indian legislation and regulation adequately promote transgenic plant research. The present study maps and analyses various legislations that are involved in the research and commercialization of transgenic crops. The framework suggested will serve as a ready reckoner for firms practicing in this area.
Requires Subscription or Fee PDF


Bayer, JC., Norton, GW and Zepeda, JF. Cost of compliance with biotechnology regulation in the Philippines: Implications for developing countries. AgBioForum 13(1): 53-62 (2010).

Blank, SC. Small and Medium Enterprises in Agricultural Biotechnology. OECD International Futures Project on “The Bioeconomy to 2030: Designing a Policy Agendaâ€. 2-3 (2008) ( Accessed on August 30, 2013.

Bradford, KJ., Deynze, AV., Gutterson, N., Parrott, W., Strauss, SH. Regulating transgenic crops

sensibly: lessons from plant breeding, biotechnology and genomics. Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 439-444 (2005).

Cohen, J. Harnessing biotechnology for the poor: challenges ahead for capacity, safety and public investment. J Human Dev. 2, 239–263 (2001).

Damodaran, A. Regulating Transgenic Plants in India: Biosafety, Plant Variety Protection and Beyond. Econ. Polit. Wkly. 34(13), A34-A42 (1999).

Damodaran, A. Re-Engineering Biosafety Regulations in India: Towards a Critique of Policy. Law, Environment and Development Journal, 1, 1-9 (2005).

Jaffe, G. Regulating transgenic crops: a comparative analysis of different regulatory processes. Transgenic Research. 13, 5-6 (2004).

Kalaitzandonakes, N., Alston, JM. & Bradford, KJ. Compliance costs for regulatory approval of new biotech crops. Nat. Biotechnol. 25, 509 - 511 (2007).

Lu, BR. Transgene escape from GM crops and potential biosafety consequences: an environmental perspective. Collect. Biosafety Rev. 4, 66-141 (2008).

McElroy, D. Sustaining Agrobiotechnology Through Lean Times. Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 996-1002 (2003).

Pray, CE. & Bengali, P. The cost of biosafety regulations: the Indian experience. Q. J. Int. Agr. 44, 267-289 (2005).

Pray, CE. et al., Costs and Enforcement of Biosafety Regulations in India and China. Int. J. Tech.& Glob.. 2, 1–2 (2006).

Pray, CE., Nagarajan, L. Innovation and Research by Private Agribusiness in India. IFPRI Discussion Paper 01181 (2012).

Qaim, M. The Economics of. Genetically Modified Crops. Annu. Rev. Resour. Econ. 1, 665–93 (2009).

Ramaswami, B., Pray, CE., & Lalitha, N. The spread of illegal transgenic cotton varieties in India: Biosafety regulation, monopoloy, and enforcement. World Dev. 43 (1), 177–188 (2010).

Sharma, KK., Sharma, HC.,Seetharama, N. & Ortiz, R. Development and deployment of transgenic plants:

Biosafety considerations. Invitro Cell. Dev. Biol. Plant 8:106–115 (2002).

Singh, RJ. , Ahlawat, IF. & Singh, S. Effects of transgenic Bt cotton on soil fertility and biology under field conditions in subtropical inceptisol. Environ Monit Assess. 185(1): 485-495 (2013).

Smale, M. et al. Conclusions and future directions. In: Measuring the economic Impacts of Transgenic Crops in Developing Agriculture during the First Decade. Approaches, Findings, and Future Directions. Food Policy Review 10, International Food Policy Research Institute; 2009. p. 79-88.

Ubalua, A. O. Transgenic plants: Successes and controversies. Biotechnol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 4, 118-127 (2009).

Vaidyanathan, G. Genetically modified cotton gets high marks in India. Nat. News, 03 July 2012.

Unless specified by prior arrangement, the author agrees to the following terms and assurances:

  1. For myself and on behalf of the other authors listed on this work, I assign to thinkBiotech LLC the copyright* in the contribution for the full term throughout the world.
  2. I/we further give to the following assurances
    1. I am the sole author of the contribution, or, if not, I have the written authority of the other authors to transfer the copyright* to thinkBiotech LLC and give these warranties;
    2. I and (where appropriate) the other authors are entitled to transfer the copyright to thinkBiotech LLC and no one else would be entitled to prevent us from publishing the contribution;
    3. To the best of my/our knowledge, all the facts in the contribution are true and accurate;
    4. The content of the contribution is entirely original to me (and where appropriate to the other authors) or, if not, the written permission of the owner of the copyright in any material copied from elsewhere has been obtained for all media (all such permissions to be attached to the contribution as supplementary files);
    5. Nothing in the contribution is obscene or libellous;
    6. Nothing in the contribution infringes any duty of confidentiality which I/or the other authors may owe to anyone else.
    7. I and/or the other authors have obtained the appropriate clearances from my/our employer(s) or other concerned institution(s).
* Works by US government employees prepared as part of official duties are in the public domain and the authors are therefore exempt from copyright assignment.