Globalization, Evolution and Emergence of Direct-to-Consumer Advertising: Are Emerging Markets the Next Pharmaceutical Marketing Frontier?


  • Timothy Ken Mackey Institute of Health Law Studies Joint Doctoral Program, Global Health, University of California, San Diego-San Diego State University



Global health, direct-to-consumer advertising, emerging markets, pharmaceutical marketing, globalization, international law, health policy


Pharmaceutical marketing has rapidly evolved over the past century and has now entered the digital revolution.  This is exemplified by the rise of direct-to-consumer-advertising (“DTCAâ€), which has traditionally been only allowed in the United States and New Zealand in developed countries, but is now expanding in reach to other jurisdictions.  Enabling the “globalization†of pharmaceutical DTCA is Internet-related technologies that are not limited to geographical borders and are highly unregulated.  This DTCA digital “spillover†into markets that prohibit it can have adverse impact on health outcomes and health-related spending.  Emerging markets may represent the next logically step for digital DTCA proliferation, given their untapped market potential and explosive growth.  Further research and global health policy reform is necessary to address this “emerging†global health issue.

Author Biography

Timothy Ken Mackey, Institute of Health Law Studies Joint Doctoral Program, Global Health, University of California, San Diego-San Diego State University

Timothy Mackey is a Senior Research Associate, Institute of Health Law Studies, as well as a Ph.D student in the Joint Doctoral Program in Global Health at University of California San Diego School of Medicine and San Diego State University Graduate School of Public Health. He has a global perspective and appreciation of diverse social and cultural backgrounds after living in a number of foreign countries in both developed and developing nations. He earned his Bachelors Degree in Political Science-International Relations at the University of California San Diego, and received a Masters in Advanced Studies Degree in the Joint Program in Health Law, University of California San Diego-California Western School of Law. He has a diverse background including working both in the public and private sector including completing an internship at the World Health Organization, volunteer work in governance of a non-profit organization and over 6 years of experience in legal and compliance positions in the medical device industry.



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