Creating systemic oral transmucosal drug delivery strategies: Case study of APL-130277


  • Anthony Giovinazzo Cynapsus Therapeutics, Inc.
  • Nathan Bryson Cynapsus Therapeutics, Inc.
  • Timothy Tankosic Aqua Partners LLC



sublingual, oral transmucosal, drug delivery, apomorphine, Parkinson's


This article addresses the strategic application of systemic oral transmucosal* (i.e., sublingual and buccal) drug delivery. Circumvention of first-pass hepatic metabolism in the gut, rapid onset of action, easy access via the oral cavity, easy administration for patients with dysphagia and a high level of patient acceptance are the principal advantages of the oral transmucosal route. Key clinical and commercial strategies driving the development of oral transmucosal formulations are addressed. A case study of Cynapsus Therapeutics' APL-130277, a sublingual apomorphine formulation in clinical development for Parkinson's disease exemplifies the scientific, clinical and commercial considerations for systemic oral transmucosal drug delivery.

*Note: In this article, oral transmucosal delivery refers to systemic drug delivery through the sublingual or buccal mucosa. Local delivery to the oral mucosa is not included.


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