Recently becoming the sixth largest economy in the world, Brazil has relied, in large part, on its comparative advantages of resource extraction and agriculture. Sustained long-term growth will require Brazil moves into higher value industries that build of off its comparative advantage. Biotechnology has surfaced as a sector of strategic importance, and government involvement in finance, education and research and development has created an industry on the cusp of global significance. By examining sources of finance, human capital accumulation, research and development, intellectual property rights and supporting institutions, we seek to provide a broad overview of Brazilâ€™s nascent biotechnology sector. Spotlights of the agriculture, human health and reagent industries as well as an analysis of the Minas Gerais biotechnology cluster flesh out biotechnologyâ€™s place in Brazilâ€™s economy. An antiquated intellectual property rights regime, an insufficient number of qualified researchers and dearth of venture capital firms and private sources of finance are key bottlenecks that must be addressed in order to promote industry growth and consolidation.
Winter, Brian. "Brazil Seeks to Help Europe Via IMF." Reuters. 20 Sept. 2011.
Troyjo, Marcos. "12 for 2012: Brazil's Import Substitution Industrialization 2.0." Financial Times: Beyondbrics. 2 Jan. 2012.
Lin, Justin, and Ha-Joon Chang. "Should Industrial Policy in Developing Countries Conform to Comparative Advantage or Defy It? A Debate Between Justin Lin and Ha-Joon Chang." Development Policy Review 27.5 (2009): 483-502.
"Life Sciences Sector in Brazil." UK Trade & Investment, 20 Jan. 2011.
Brazil. Office of the Presidency. Subchief for Legal Affairs. Decree Number 6041, of 8 February 2007.
Science, Technology and Innovation for National Development: Action Plan 2007-2010, Summary Document. Rep. Ministry of Science and Technology, 2007.
Giacomazzi, Eduardo. "Brazil's Biotech Initiatives." Lecture. BRBIOTEC Brasil.
Soares, Eduardo E., and Eliane Kihara. The Brazilian Life Science Industry: Pathways for Growth. Rep. PwC/Biominas Brasil, 2011.
Zylberberg, Claudia, Asli C. Oner, and Ezequiel Zylberberg. "Biotechnology in Argentina: Development and Resources." Journal of Commerical Biotechnology (Forthcoiming).
"BNDES Approves R$ 277.6 Million in Financing for Innovation Projects in the Pharmaceutical Sector." BNDES. 15 Mar. 2011.
Brazil Biotech Map 2011. BRBIOTEC Brasil and CEBRAP, 2011.
"CT-Biotecnologia: Fundo Setorial De Biotecnologia." FINEP.
Medendorp, John W. "Measuring Impact of Fellowship Recipients on the Enhancement of Quality in Higher Education Systems: A Comparative Study of Brazil's CAPES and Nicaragua's SIDA/SAREC Program." Scribd. 2 May 2010.
"National Expenditures on Research and Development (R&D), According to Industry Funding, in Relation to Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Selected Countries, in the Most Recent Years Available." Indicators. Ministry of Science and Technology.
Albornoz, Mario et al. Inventory of Biotechnological Rules and Regulations in the MERCOSUR. Rep. Centro Redes, 2005.
Gouvea, Raul, and Sul Kassicieh. "Using Resources in R&D Policy Planning: Brazil, the Amazon and Biotechnology." Technological Forecasting and Social Change 72.5 (2005): 535-47.
Intellectual Property Statistics. World Intellectual Property Organization, 20 Dec. 2011.
Giovannetti, Glen T., and Gautam Jaggi, comps. Beyond Borders: Global Biotechnology Report 2011. Rep. Ernst & Young, 2011.
Chang, Ha-Joon. The East Asian Development Experience: The Miracle, the Crisis and the Future. London: Zed Books, 2006.
"Brazil Boom in Agricultural Production." Crop Biotech Update. Global Knowledge Center on Crop Biotechnology, International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-Biotech Applications SEAsiaCenter (ISAAA), 3 Feb. 2012.
Flake, Oliver. "Record Brazilian Agricultural Production Spurs Further Export Gains." Foreign Agricultural Service. United States Department of Agriculture, 24 Jan. 2012.
Da Silva, Ana Claudia R. "New Perspectives for Agricultural Biotechnology in Brazil." Agricultural Biotechnology: Economic Growth Through New Products, Partnerships and Workforce Development (2006): 81-83. Cornell University.
"Brazilian Brew: America Opens Up to Brazilian Ethanol." The Economist 7 Jan. 2012, Biofuels sec.
Rezaie, Rahim, Sarah E. Frew, Stephen M. Sammut, Maya R. Maliakkal, Abdallah S. Daar, and Peter A. Singer. "Brazilian Health Biotechâ€”fostering Crosstalk between Public and Private Sectors." Nature Biotechnology 26.6 (2008): 627-44.
Porter, Michael E. "Location, Competition, and Economic Development: Local Clusters in a Global Economy." Economic Development Quarterly 14.1 (2000): 15-34.
Dimova, Marina, Andres Mitnik, Paula Suarez-Buitron, and Marcos Siqueira. "Brazil Biotech Cluster: Minas Gerais, A Cluster Analysis." Microeconomics of Competitiveness (2009)
Unless specified by prior arrangement, the author agrees to the following terms and assurances:
- For myself and on behalf of the other authors listed on this work, I assign to thinkBiotech LLC the copyright* in the contribution for the full term throughout the world.
- I/we further give to the following assurances
- I am the sole author of the contribution, or, if not, I have the written authority of the other authors to transfer the copyright* to thinkBiotech LLC and give these warranties;
- I and (where appropriate) the other authors are entitled to transfer the copyright to thinkBiotech LLC and no one else would be entitled to prevent us from publishing the contribution;
- To the best of my/our knowledge, all the facts in the contribution are true and accurate;
- The content of the contribution is entirely original to me (and where appropriate to the other authors) or, if not, the written permission of the owner of the copyright in any material copied from elsewhere has been obtained for all media (all such permissions to be attached to the contribution as supplementary files);
- Nothing in the contribution is obscene or libellous;
- Nothing in the contribution infringes any duty of confidentiality which I/or the other authors may owe to anyone else.
- I and/or the other authors have obtained the appropriate clearances from my/our employer(s) or other concerned institution(s).