Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Patenting Bioinformatics Innovations: Emerging Trends and Challenges in the United States

Tuhin Chatterjee

Abstract

Bioinformatics tools and techniques are useful not only to manage and analyze the vast amount of raw biological data generated from various genomics research but also to understand the phenomena of the biological system at the macromolecular level. The development of bioinformatics has come a long way from DNA sequencing tools of the Human Genome Project (HGP) era to DNA circuits and programmable synthetic biological devices in the twenty-first century. The present article attempts to analyze and reveal the emerging trends in bioinformatics and computational biology research and innovation and challenges in patenting them under the current US patent regime.   

Keywords

Bioinformatics, Computational biology, In Silico screening, Patent, Structural genomics, USPTO

Full Text:

PDF

References

Altschul, Stephen F., Warren Gish, Webb Miller, Eugene W. Myers, and David J. Lipman. 1990. “Basic Local Alignment Search Tool.” Journal of Molecular Biology 215 (3): 403–10. doi:10.1016/S0022-2836(05)80360-2.

Andersen, B. 1999. The hunt for S-shaped growth paths in technological innovation: A patent study. Journal of Evolutionary Economics, 9, 487–526.

Albert R, Barabasi AL (2002) Statistical mechanics of complex networks. Rev Mod Phys 74:47–97.

Barh, Debmalya., Vasudeo. Zambare, and Vasco. Azevedo. 2013. Omics : Applications in Biomedical, Agricultural, and Environmental Sciences. CRC Press/Taylor & Francis.

Beck, Hans Christian. 2010. “Mass Spectrometry in Epigenetic Research.” In Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.), edited by Rune Matthiesen, 593:263–82. Methods in Molecular Biology. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press. doi:10.1007/978-1-60327-194-3_13.

C.J. Fall 2003, Computer-Assisted Categorization of Patent Documents in the International Patent Classification, Proceedings of the International Chemical Information Conference, http://www.wipo.int/ipc/itos4ipc/ITSupport_and_download_area/Documentation/presentations/categ_wipo_icic03.pdf (last visited 20/01/2017).

Daniel Richards. 2016. “Supreme Court Upholds Patent Office’s Method Of Claim Construction.” The Columbia Science and Technology Law Review. http://stlr.org/2016/12/07/supreme-court-upholds-patent-offices-method-of-claim-construction/.

Daim, T. U., Rueda, G., Martin, H., & Gerdsri, P. 2006. Forecasting emerging technologies: Use of bibliometrics and patent analysis. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 73, 981–1012

Etzkowitz, Henry, Andrew. Webster, and Peter Healey. 1998. Capitalizing Knowledge : New Intersections of Industry and Academia. SUNY Series, Frontiers in Education. State University of New York Press.

Goldsmith-Fischman, Sharon, and Barry Honig. 2003. “Structural Genomics: Computational Methods for Structure Analysis.” Protein Science : A Publication of the Protein Society 12 (9). Wiley-Blackwell: 1813–21. doi:10.1110/ps.0242903.

Group, IPC Revision Working. 2010. “Special Union for the International Patent Classfication (Ipc Union) Ipc Revision Working Group.” #WIPO. Geneva. http://www.wipo.int/edocs/mdocs/classifications/en/ipc_wg_23/ipc_wg_23_2.pdf.

Garfield, E 1955. Citation indexes for science: a new dimension in documentation through association of ideas. Science 122: 108–111.

Hagen, Joel B. 2000. “The Origins of Bioinformatics Joel.” Nature Reviews Genetics 1 (3): 231–36. doi:10.1038/35042090.

Harrison, Robert. 2003. “Protecting Innovation in Bioinformatics and in-Silico Biology.” BioDrugs 17 (4): 227–31. doi:10.2165/00063030-200317040-00001.

“Human Genome Project Completion: Frequently Asked Questions.” 2010. National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI). https://www.genome.gov/11006943/human-genome-project-completion-frequently-asked-questions/. (last accessed 2nd January 2017)

Joyce, A. P., C. Zhang, P. Bradley, and J. J. Havranek. 2015. “Structure-Based Modeling of Protein: DNA Specificity.” Briefings in Functional Genomics 14 (1). Oxford University Press: 39–49. doi:10.1093/bfgp/elu044.

Kanehisa, Minoru, and Peer Bork. 2003. “Bioinformatics in the Post-Sequence Era.” Nature Genetics 33 (3s): 305–10. doi:10.1038/ng1109.

Langer, Thierry., and Rémy D. Hoffmann. 2006. Pharmacophores and Pharmacophore Searches. Pharmacophores and Pharmacophore Searches. Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/3527609164.

Liò, Pietro, and Nick Goldman. 1998. “Models of Molecular Evolution and Phylogeny.” Genome Research 8 (12). Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press: 1233–44. doi:10.1101/gr.8.12.1233.

Luscombe, N M, D Greenbaum, and M Gerstein. 2001. “What Is Bioinformatics? A Proposed Definition and Overview of the Field.” Methods of Information in Medicine 40 (4): 346–58. doi:10.1053/j.ro.2009.03.010.

Narin F. 1998. Patents and publicly funded research: assessing the value of research in the chemical sciences. National Academy Press, Washington, pp 59–72.

Narin F. and Hamilton K. S. 1996. Bibliometric performance measures. Scientometrics, 36(3), 293–310.

Martin, B. R. 1995. Foresight in science and technology, Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 7(2), 139–168.

Oppenheim C. 2000. Do patent citations count? The Web of Knowledge (Information Today Inc.), Medford.

Pavitt, K. 1985. Patent statistics as indicators of innovative activities: Possibilities and problems. Scientometrics, 7(1–2), 77–99.

Spiga, Enrico, Matteo Thomas Degiacomi, and Matteo Dal Peraro. 2014. “New Strategies for Integrative Dynamic Modeling of Macromolecular Assembly.” In Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology, 96:77–111. doi:10.1016/bs.apcsb.2014.06.008.

SUPREME COURT OF THE UNITED STATES. 2013. “Association for Molecular Pathology v. Myriad Genetics, No. 12-398 (569 U.S. ___ June 13, 2013).”

Trilateral Patent Office. 2002. “Trilateral Project WM4 Comparative Studies in New Technologies ( Biotechnology , Business Methods , Etc .) Report on Comparative Study on Protein 3-Dimensional ( 3-D ) Structure Related Claims United States Patent and Trademark Office.” Vienna. http://www.trilateral.net/projects/biotechnology/WM4.pdf. (last accessed 12th November 2016)

U.S. Court of Appeals Federal Circuit. 1992. “Arrhythmia Research v. Corazonix.” http://digital-law-online.info/cases/22PQ2D1033.htm. (last accessed 10th December, 2016)

———. 1998. State Street Bank v. Signature Financial.

U.S. Supreme Court. 1980. Diamond v. Chakrabarty : 447 U.S. 303 (1980) :: U.S. Supreme Court.

United States Court of Appeals. 2014. Digitech Image Tech., LLC v. Electronics for Imaging, Inc.

United States Patent and Trademark Office. 1996. “Examination Guidelines for Computer Related Inventions.” https://www.uspto.gov/web/offices/com/sol/og/con/files/cons093.htm.

USPTO. 2007. “Patent Subject Matter Eligibility [ R-9 ].” https://www.uspto.gov/web/offices/pac/mpep/s2106.html (last accessed 15th November, 2016).

Watts, R. J., & Porter, A. L. 1997. Innovation forecasting, Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 56(1), XIV–XIV47.

Wong, Ka-Chun. 2016. Computational Biology and Bioinformatics : Gene Regulation. CRC Press. https://www.crcpress.com/Computational-Biology-and-Bioinformatics-Gene-Regulation/Wong/p/book/9781498724975 (last accessed 20th November, 2016).

Yan Dang et. al 2009. Trends in worldwide nanotechnology patent applications: 1991 to 2008, J Nanopart Res DOI 10.1007/s11051-009-9831-7.

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.